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why are they better than the mines of the Russian army – UNIAN

Ukrainian sappers actively use Western-made anti-tank mines, which have significantly better characteristics than Soviet developments.

Armed Forces of Ukraine received mines from Western countries that are superior to Russian counterparts / Photo - kms_d4k

The main anti-tank mine, both in the Armed Forces of Ukraine and in the army of the Russian Federation at the level of 2021, remained the TM-62, which was developed back in the early 60s, as well as its numerous upgrades.

This is a fairly simple high-explosive mine for 6.5-8 kg of explosive, which has a main and common contact fuse, that is, it reacts only when a car or armored vehicle hits it, exploding under a wheel or caterpillar. During its existence, of course, other fuses were added to it, including magnetic fuses, which react to a large mass of metal.

But the backwardness of the technological base of the USSR, the capriciousness of the detectors, which were supersensitive, as well as the unreliability of the batteries, formed a rather negative reputation for both such fuses and specialized “magnetic” mines like the TM-72.

Similar problems befell the specialized TM-83 directional anti-tank mine, which, although it had a full set of sensors, including a seismic detector and an infrared sensor, instead of 30 days according to “paper” characteristics, in practice “lived” 5-10 days due to the fact that that the batteries in it quickly discharged.

That is why the Armed Forces of Ukraine, having received anti-tank mines from the Western allies, and we are talking at least about the French HPD, German DM12, DM22 and DM31, the use of which has already been recorded, received a significant advantage over the enemy.

French HPD

The French series of mines HPD (Haut Pouvoir de Destruction) can rightly be considered a work of weapon art. The first generation of HPD-1 mines appeared back in the 80s and already at this stage received the entire set of features that ensure its effectiveness.

HPD, laid under the soil layer, has seismic and magnetic sensors. The first “listens” to vibrations and when enemy equipment approaches, it activates a magnetic sensor that detects precisely large metal objects, such as armored vehicles. It has a built-in minimum sensitivity so that, for example, it does not work on a passenger car, but only on equipment weighing over 8 tons, that is, on armored personnel carriers, infantry fighting vehicles, tanks or trucks loaded with ammunition.

As soon as such a technique of an HPD passing over a mine explodes, throwing the earth over the mine, the main warhead with the so-called “shock core” is triggered in a matter of fractions of a second – a formed striking element flying at a speed of several kilometers per second. Thanks to its huge energy, it penetrates from 70 mm of armor, which is enough to destroy any armored vehicles, given that the armor on the bottom is traditionally one of the thinnest.

Mines HPD in yellow, German DM31 - green / Photo - UAWeapons

In the HPD-2 version, the mine received a penetration of up to 150 mm, as well as the possibility of laying to a depth of up to 1.5 meters. And in the HPD-3 version, a digital programmer has been added. HPD mines are protected against mine clearance, in particular, they are sensitive to mine detector signals. It also has a self-deactivation mechanism (without an explosion) and is installed for up to 30 days, after which it can be taken out and prepared for re-laying.

German mine DM31

DM31 was developed in the late 80s and is a classic anti-tank mine with a magnetic fuse and cumulative action. It is laid in the ground at a shallow depth. When a metal object passes over a mine, the cover of the mine is fired, which clears the earth poured over it and the cumulative warhead is triggered.

The mine is laid for a period of 38-42 days, after which it is deactivated and can be prepared for reuse. An extremely unusual and even characteristic feature of the scrupulous Germans of the mine is the DM31 signaling that it has self-deactivated: the mine raises a red flag to show where it is located.

German mines DM12 and DM22

DM12 and DM22, also known as PARM 1 and PARM 2, are not actually “mines” in the usual sense of the word device. In fact, it is an automated anti-tank grenade launcher that fires a cumulative grenade with a penetration of more than 100 mm, which pierces the vehicle into the side.

DM12 and DM22 use a fiber optic cable that is unwound across a road that enemy armored vehicles can walk on, the cable is 40 meters long. As soon as the cable is damaged, the mine is activated and fires a rocket-propelled grenade into the side of an armored vehicle or vehicle.

It is also known that for this mine there is an infrared sensor that increases the range to 60 meters. And in the newer DM22, which has similar means of activation, the range is increased to 100 meters and penetration is increased. The self-deactivation period is 40 days.

But Western anti-tank mines, in addition to significantly higher reliability and power, have another extremely important advantage – they are little known to Russian sappers, because in the vast majority of cases the enemy dealt only with Soviet developments.

Of course, the sappers of the Russian Federation are well aware of the features and characteristics of western mines, but it’s one thing to see them only in pictures, it’s quite another to clear them yourself.

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