Modern high-rise buildings save every square meter in the city to increase the area of residential real estate. How are high-rise buildings getting taller and more complex every year? Below, we’ll take a look at the innovative skyscraper construction methods that keep our city’s architectural icons unsurpassed.
What is a skyscraper?
The first high-rise buildings were built at the end of the 19th century. They originated in urban areas where rising land prices and high population densities created a high demand for buildings that grew upward rather than outward, thus occupying much less valuable land. Multi-storey buildings have become practical through the use of a reinforced concrete frame.
There is no clearly defined term for what a skyscraper is, but it is considered to be such – a building is higher than the maximum height that people are willing to walk to.
Foundation and frame of high-rise buildings
The foundations of high-rise buildings sometimes have to withstand very high gravitational loads and usually consist of concrete pillars, piles or caissons sunk into the ground. Hard rock soil is the most preferred substrate, but with the development of building technology, methods have been found to evenly distribute the workload even on relatively soft layers. However, the most important factor in the design of high-rise buildings is the need for the building to resist the horizontal forces generated by winds and potential earthquakes.
The frames of most high-rise buildings are made of steel reinforcement and concrete. By using construction formwork erected vertical support elements – columns, as well as floor slabs. Cross bracing or walls can be used to give the structure more transverse rigidity to withstand wind loads.
What can not be done without in such buildings
The main means of ascent and descent in such buildings is an elevator. It is driven by an electric motor, which can quickly transport passengers with a cabin in a vertical shaft with the help of cables. Each such elevator car is connected to vertical rails and has a flexible electrical cable connected to it, which provides power for lighting, door operation and signaling to the panel.
Due to its height and large crowds in multi-storey buildings, careful provision of life safety systems is required. Special attention is paid to fire safety measures in such houses, so they must provide appropriate means of evacuation in the event of a fire, power outage or other accidents. Although many high-rise buildings were originally designed for commercial purposes, they are now being mass-produced for residential use. In such buildings, you can easily see a combination of office, residential, retail and hotel space under one roof.